1. SELF-KNOWLEDGE.- It’s the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual, differentiating themselves from their environment and other individuals. This concept is treated mainly in evolutionary psychology.

    1. Expectations.- It’s what we assume is most likely to happen in the future. This expectation may or may not be realistic. If what definitely happens is below what we expected, we may be disappointed. If something totally unexpected happens, we would be in for a surprise. We can also talk about the social expectation, which is what we expect from a certain person.

    2. Personality.- It is the behavior of a person and that persists throughout his life so we can guess how he will react to a certain stimulus.

  2. THE TRAINING ITINERARY.- It’s the set of courses that we carry out throughout our lives with the intention of reaching a certain professional or educational training.

  3. THE PROFESSIONAL ITINERARY.- It’s the set of courses and activities that make us evolve in our work.

    1. The professional profile.- They are the skills and the competences of a person who can afford to perform a particular profession.It should be added to our curriculum vitae or to our cover letter so that the coach can have a clearer idea of our possibilities.

    2. Professional objectives.- They depend on two things: on our expectations and on our abilities and, based on them, we can choose where we are going to try to work. For example, we have to decide in what type of company we want to work, in what sector, what activity we want to develop within the company, what salary we aspire to earn, what hours we are going to have, what day, in which city or in which town I go to do my job, etc.

    3. Professions.- They are the trades, jobs or occupations in which we work and for which we receive a salary. Each profession requires a certain training, which can be basic, medium or higher.

  4. THE CHOICE OF AN ITINERARY.- Depending on our faculties, we must choose a certain training itinerary that will take us, if possible, to a certain professional itinerary within the company that has hired us or that we ourselves have created thanks to our entrepreneurship .


    1. Steps in the job search process.-

      1. Locate jobs (most common methods) .-

        1. Find a job through a friend or family member

        2. Using a web page

        3. Using a search engine

        4. Looking at the ads in the newspapers

        5. Using a public or private employment agency or recruitment company

        6. Looking at a company's website to see if it has jobs available

        7. Going to a Job Fair

        8. Using outplacement services that teach you to write a resume, a job application, or successfully face an interview.

        9. Visiting a company to find out if it’s hiring or if it’s going to do so in the future.

        10. Researching Employers - Many job seekers research employers they are applying to, and some employers see this as a positive sign of enthusiasm to learn about the company. The information obtained could include: the full name of the company, where it has its facilities, website, business it does, year it was created, income, number of employees, market value (if it is listed on the Stock Exchange), name of the CEO, main products or services, main competitors and strengths and weaknesses.

        11. Generating contacts.-

          • Very effective.- Contacting as many people as possible is a very effective way to find work. It has been estimated that more than 50% of all jobs are found through contacts.

          • Use of web pages by companies.- Recruitment companies and decision makers are increasingly using social contact web pages to gather information on job applicants.

          • Use of web pages by job seekers.- Similarly, job seekers are beginning to use social contact web pages to advertise their skills and post their resumes. Today, job seekers can use Google+, Facebook, Linkedin, and Twitter to get employers interested in them. In 2014, using these social networks has led to 1 in 6 of job seekers finding it.

          • Watch what hangs! Job seekers need to start paying more attention to what employers and recruitment companies find when they gather information about job applicants, before conducting interviews.

      2. Job application.-

        1. Websites, phone, email.- One can present a resume or job applications to potential employers, in the hope that they will hire them. Job applications can be submitted to job websites that assist in job search. Another recommended method is to call by phone and, since the nineties, send emails to the companies where you want to work and ask if there are vacancies.

        2. Company Websites.- Since 2000, the Internet has become increasingly popular to apply for a job, where companies give job seekers the option of making that application through the company's website, including , now some companies only use this method to recruit staff.

        3. Quality of the presentation.- For certain occupations, such as graphic designers or writers, the presentation is essential and has a lot of importance, even more than the resume itself.

        4. Resume content.- In most jobs, the resume can focus on past accomplishments, expressed in as concrete terms as possible (for example, number of people targeted, amount by which sales were increased, or amount in which increased consumer satisfaction).

      3. Interview.- Once an employer has received the resume, it draws up a list of the people to be interviewed based on the resume and the rest of the information that has been provided. During the interview process, interviewers generally look for people who they think are best for the job and the environment in which it’s conducted. The interview can be done in several rounds until the interviewer is satisfied and offers the job to the applicant.

      4. Self-employment.-

        1. Definition.- The self-employed generally find their own job rather than an employer providing it, having income from a business that they operate.

        2. Worker disguised as self-employed.-In some countries, governments are placing more emphasis on clarifying whether an individual is self-employed or whether a normal job is disguising itself as self-employment, pretending that there’s a relationship between companies when, in many cases, is an employment relationship.

        3. Subsidies for the self-employed.- One of the initiatives, in Spain, to encourage self-employment are subsidies for the unemployed who register as self-employed. The management of these funds, co-financed by the European Social Fund, is transferred to the different Spanish Autonomous Communities and each autonomy, through its employment council, establishes the necessary conditions to receive the aid. This is a non-refundable grant intended to support the first steps of the businesses that the subsidy applicants propose.


    1. Types of financing.-

      1. According to its origin.-

        1. Internal financing or self-financing.-

          • Definition.- Internal financing is the name for a company using its profits as a source of capital for new investments, instead of: a) distributing them to the owners of the company or other investors and b) obtaining capital elsewhere.

          • They are.- They are amortizations and reserves

        2. External financing.-

          • Definition.- External financing consists of new money from outside the company brought in for investment.

          • They are.- They are the capital and liabilities

      2. According to who is the owner of the resources.-

        1. Own resources.-

          • Definition.- Equity is the asset minus the liability

          • They are.- They are the capital, amortizations and reserves

        2. Third-party resources.- They are the liability


    1. Term deposits and fixed-term deposits.- Clients can only dispose of their money when the agreed period has passed, otherwise they should pay a penalty.

    2. The demand deposits.- Also known as current accounts and other deposits that function as demand deposits

    3. Loans.- It’s short-term or long-term external financing (if it’s for a year or less, it’s short-term and, if not, it’s long-term). The user receives the entire amount agreed from the beginning, forcing him to return this and all interest on certain days established in advance

    4. Credit account.- It’s short-term external financing. The bank allows the customer to credit for a certain period of time and up to a certain amount, forcing the customer to pay a commission and return the desired amounts within the stipulated limit.


    1. Crowfunding.- It is to raise funds from the crowd. Today, with the use of the Internet, this form of financing is being very successful. The idea is put on the Internet and people are joining the project, investing what each one decides.

    2. Playfunding.- It’s the financing of a project through the reproduction of advertisements.

    3. Crowlending.- It’s asking for loans from the crowd. A project and the internet are placed and people are asked to lend money so that it can be carried out

    4. Crowsourcing.- It consists of outsourcing tasks that, traditionally, were carried out by employees or contractors, leaving them in charge of a large group of people

    5. Business angel.- It’s a private investor who provides funding and/or expertise to entrepreneurs in order to obtain future profit.


    1. Fee.-Afee is a tax whose taxable event is the private use or special use of the public domain, providing services or performing activities under public law relating affect or benefit a particular way to the taxpayer, when the services or activities aren’t voluntarily requested or received by the taxpayers or aren’t provided or performed by the private sector. Eg we pay a fee when we get the DNI.

    2. Special contributions.- The special contributions are the taxes whose chargeable event is the acquisition by the taxpayer of a benefit or an increase in value of their property as a result of public works or the establishment or expansion of public services. Eg we pay a special contribution if they renew the pavement of our street.

    3. Value added tax.- VAT is an indirect tax on consumption, that is, financed by the final consumer. An indirect tax is the tax that isn’t received by the treasury directly from the taxpayer. VAT must be collected by companies at the time of any sale of products (transfer of goods and services). Companies have the right to be reimbursed the VAT that they have paid to other companies on purchases made in exchange for invoices (tax credit), subtracting it from the amount of VAT charged to their customers (tax debit), having to deliver the difference to the treasury. End consumers are obliged to pay VAT without the right to reimbursement,

    4. Income tax.- The income tax is personal, progressive direct tax on income earned in a calendar year by individuals resident in Spain. It is the most significant pillar of the tax system.

    5. Corporate tax.- It’s a periodic, proportional, direct and personal tax whose taxable event is the obtaining of income by legal persons and other entities without personality. Taxes the income of companies and other legal entities. It’s applied throughout the Spanish territory, with the exception of the Basque Country and Navarra (by means of a concert).

    6. Tax on capital transfers and documented legal acts.- I’is a tax that levy: a) the transfer of goods for consideration that aren’t taxed by the value added tax, b) the formalization of certain notarial documents, commercial and administrative operations in Spanish territory or abroad that take effect in Spain and c) the constitution, increase and decrease of capital, merger, spin-off and dissolution of companies, the contributions made by the partners to replace social losses and the transfer to Spain of the headquarters effective management or registered office of a company.

    7. Real estate tax.- The IBI is a tax on the value of the ownership and other rights levied on real property located in the municipality that collects tax. Its management is shared between the State Administration and the City Councils.

    8. Tax on economic activities.- The IAE is a tax levied directly carrying out any type of economic activity, both individuals and corporations. Unlike other taxes, its amount is constant regardless of the balance of the activity. It’s a direct, mandatory, proportional, real and shared management tax.


  1. LABOR LAW.-

    1. Work.- The work that regulates Labor Law is that which has the following characteristics: voluntary, paid, and employed.

    2. Workers 'Rights (Workers' Statute) .-

      1. To work and free choice of profession or trade.

      2. To free syndication.

      3. To collective bargaining.

      4. To the adoption of collective conflict measures.

      5. To the strike.

      6. Of reunion.

      7. Information, consultation and participation in the company.

      8. To effective occupation.

      9. Promotion and professional training at work, including that aimed at adapting to changes in the job, as well as the development of training plans and actions aimed at promoting greater employability.

      10. Not to be directly or indirectly discriminated against for employment, or once employed, for reasons of sex, marital status, age within the limits set by this law, racial or ethnic origin, social condition, religion or convictions, political ideas, orientation sex, affiliation or not to a union, as well as for reasons of language, within the Spanish State. Neither may they be discriminated against on the grounds of disability, provided that they are fit to perform the job or job in question.

      11. To their physical integrity and to an adequate safety and hygiene policy.

      12. Respect for their privacy and due consideration for their dignity, including protection against harassment based on racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation, and against sexual harassment and harassment based on sex .

      13. To the timely receipt of the agreed or legally established remuneration.

      14. To the individual exercise of the actions derived from their employment contract.

      15. To how many others are specifically derived from the employment contract.

    3. Duties of workers (Workers' Statute) .-

      1. Comply with the specific obligations of their job, in accordance with the rules of good faith and diligence.

      2. Observe the safety and hygiene measures that are adopted.

      3. Comply with the orders and instructions of the employer in the regular exercise of his managerial powers.

      4. Not concur with the activity of the company, in the terms established in this Law.

      5. Contribute to improving productivity.

      6. How many are derived, where appropriate, from the respective employment contracts.

    4. Employer’s rights.-

      1. To direct.- Faculty to issue orders on the mode, time and place of execution of the work, as well as on the quantity and quality of the same.

      2. To adapt the work.- It’s the faculty that the employer has to vary or transform the execution of the work in order to adapt the labor benefit to the changes in the professional qualification of the worker

      3. To impose discipline.- It consists of the power to monitor and control the execution of the work and the compliance by the worker of their obligations, as well as the power to impose the appropriate sanction in case of not fulfilling their duties.

    5. Employer’s duties.-

      1. Professionals.- Equal treatment, professional promotion and respect for the professional category of the worker

      2. Moral or ethical.- Respect for the privacy and dignity of the worker

      3. Physical.- Adequate health and safety policy at work

      4. Economic.- Duty to pay the salary and the worker's contribution to Social Security.


    1. Ability to contract.- They may contract the provision of their work:

      1. Those of legal age who have full capacity to act

      2. Emancipated minors (under eighteen and over sixteen)

      3. Non-emancipated minors, through a legal representative

      4. Foreigners, in accordance with the provisions of the specific legislation on the matter.

    2. Form of the contract.-

      1. How? .- In writing or by word of mouth. It will be presumed existing.

      2. Which ones must be in writing? .- In any case, internships and for training and learning, part-time, fixed-discontinuous and relief contracts, contracts for the performance of a specific work or service, the of workers who work remotely and those hired in Spain at the service of Spanish companies abroad. Likewise, the contracts for a specific time whose duration is greater than four weeks will be recorded in writing. If such requirement is not observed, the contract will be presumed to be concluded for an indefinite period and full time, unless there is evidence to the contrary that proves its temporary nature or the part-time nature of the services.

    3. Modalities of the employment contract.-

      1. Work in common and group contract.- If it’s a work in common, the employer will conserve with respect to each one, individually, their rights and duties; if it’s a group contract no

      2. Training contracts.-

        1. Internship.- They are those that are concluded with those who are in possession of a recognized title, within five years, or seven years when the contract is concluded with a worker with a disability, following the termination of the corresponding studies to allow obtaining professional practice appropriate to the level of studies or training completed.

        2. Contract for training and apprenticeship.- They’re those that are concluded with workers over sixteen and under twenty-five years old who lack professional qualifications (the maximum age limit will not apply when the contract is signed with people with disability or with groups in a situation of social exclusion)

      3. Part-time contract.- When the provision of services has been agreed for a number of hours a day, a week, a month or a year, less than the working day of a comparable full-time worker.

      4. Relief contract.- In order for the worker to be able to access partial retirement, he must agree with his company a reduction of the working day and salary of between a minimum of 25% and a maximum of 50%, and the company must simultaneously agree a relief contract, in order to replace the working day left vacant by the partially retiring worker. A relief contract may also be entered into to replace workers who partially retire after reaching the established age.

      5. Distance work.- It will be considered distance work that in which the provision of the work activity is carried out predominantly at the worker's home or in the place freely chosen by the latter, as an alternative to its development in person at the center. work of the company.


    1. Social benefits.-

      1. Contributory unemployment benefit.- 4 months of unemployment benefit are granted with the minimum unemployment contingency contribution of 360 days. From there, 2 more months of benefit are granted for every 6 more months of contributions due to unemployment contingencies, up to the maximum of 24 months of benefit for 6 years of contributions in the last 6 years. The amount of the benefit is calculated based on the unemployment contribution bases of the last 180 days of contribution work. The amount of this benefit is received once a month and is, during the first six months of protection, equal to 70% of the worker's salary in his previous job, and from the seventh month onwards, 50% of the salary

      2. Permanent disability benefit.- It’s a pension that the worker receives when he has a decrease or a disability from work. Could be:

        1. Partial for the usual profession.- It causes the worker a decrease of not less than 33% in the performance for said profession.

        2. Total for the usual profession.- Disables the worker for his usual profession but can dedicate himself to a different one.

        3. Absolute for all work.- Disables the worker for all profession or trade.

        4. Great disability.- When the permanently disabled worker needs the assistance of another person for the most essential acts of life.

      3. Benefit for death or survival.- They compensate the situation of economic need that produces, for certain people, the death of others.

      4. Retirement benefit.- It covers the loss of income that a person suffers when, reaching the established age, they cease to work as an employed or self-employed person, ending their working life, or reduce their working hours and salary in the terms legally established.

    2. Unemployment.- The active population are job suppliers; it’s all people, not military, who are employed or unemployed. The fraction of the workforce that is looking for a job but can’t find it determines the unemployment rate.


    1. Main obligations of the employer in matters of Workplace Hazard Prevention.-

      1. Guarantee the Safety and Health of the workers

      2. Carry out the prevention of workplace hazards by adopting whatever measures are necessary

      3. Assess workplace hazards

      4. Plan preventive action based on the results of the hazards assessment

      5. Ensure that the means of work guarantee the safety of workers

      6. Provide workers with adequate means of personal protection for the work to be carried out when risks can’t be sufficiently avoided or eliminated.

      7. Properly inform workers about the existing hazards, the applicable prevention measures and activities and the emergency measures adopted

      8. Consult workers and allow their participation in all matters that affect safety and health at work

      9. You guarantee that each worker receives adequate training in preventive matters

      10. Inform and take action when workers may be exposed to a serious and imminent hazard

      11. Guarantee periodic medical surveillance of workers' health

    2. Main rights of the employer in matters of Workplace Hazards Prevention.-

      1. Require workers to comply with the obligations corresponding to them in this matter

      2. Require workers to comply with occupational health and safety regulations

      3. Be part, where appropriate, of the Occupational Health and Safety Committee, either directly or through their representatives

    3. Main obligations and rights of workers in the area of Workplace Hazards Prevention.-

      1. Ensure their safety and health by complying with the established prevention measures

      2. Properly use machines, tools and materials

      3. Correctly use the means of individual protection provided by the company

      4. Do not modify or defeat, and use correctly, the safety devices

      5. Immediately report any situation that in your opinion involves risks

      6. Collaborate with the employer so that he can guarantee safe working conditions

      7. Receive adequate training in preventive matters

      8. Effective occupational health and safety protection

      9. Receive information about the existing hazards, the applicable protection measures and activities and the emergency measures adopted

      10. Be consulted and participate in all matters that affect safety and health at work

      11. Receive adequate information on preventive matters

      12. Be informed when they may be exposed to a serious and imminent risk

      13. Periodic monitoring of your health status based on the risks inherent to the job

      14. Be part, where appropriate, of the Occupational Health and Safety Committee, through their representatives

      15. Protection of maternity and minors

      16. The protection of workers who are especially sensitive to certain risks

      17. Use adequate and duly protected means of work

      18. That they are provided with means of personal protection appropriate to the task and the risks it entails, when the risks derived from said task have not been sufficiently avoided or reduced

    4. Most common general risks.-

      1. Falls of people or objects

      2. Bumps or cuts by objects or tools

      3. Entrapment

      4. Physical or mental fatigue

      5. Exposure to extreme ambient temperatures, harmful substances or radiation

      6. Thermal, electrical or contacts with caustic and/or corrosive substances

      7. Explosions

      8. Fires

      9. Accidents caused by living beings

      10. Noise

      11. Vibrations

      12. illumination

      13. Dissatisfaction

  5. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIETY.- The social entrepreneurial initiative is an attempt to make use of business techniques to find solutions to social problems. This concept can be applied to a variety of organizations of different sizes, goals, and beliefs.


    1. Personal skills.-

      1. The creatividad.- It’s the ability to generate new ideas or concepts, new ideas and associations between known concepts, which usually produce original solutions.

      2. The innovación.- It’s a change that introduces newness, and refers to modifying existing elements in order to improve them, although it’s also possible to implement completely new elements.

      3. Responsibility.- Consists of consciously deciding and assuming the consequences of those decisions by responding to them.

      4. Self-esteem.- It’s the generally positive assessment of oneself; this is very important in entrepreneurship.

      5. Risk aversion.- People who don’t want to take risks will not progress in life.

      6. Tenacity.- A person is tenacious when he is firm, stubborn and stubborn in a purpose. It’s a quality of entrepreneurs.

      7. The spirit of improvement.- A person has a spirit of improvement when he doesn’t surrender to the obstacles that are in his path to achieve a goal

    2. Social skills.-

      1. Leadership.- It consists of a person influencing the rest of the group members

      2. Negotiating ability.- It consists of knowing the process and modality of negotiation, knowing how to use influences and pressures intelligently and knowing what the needs of each party are



    1. Lateral thought.- It’s a method of thought that can be used as a technique for solving problems imaginatively, is a specific way of organizing thought processes, which seeks a solution through unorthodox strategies or algorithms that they would normally be ignored by logical thinking.

    2. Tricks to generate business ideas.-

      1. Use ideas that are working in other markets or sectors

      2. Know well the needs of society to see if there are any that aren’t fully covered

      3. Modify the products that we have so that they fit with the changes that are taking place in society

      4. Know the legislative changes to adapt to them promptly

      5. Try to create a company that has to do with your own hobbies to feel more motivated


    1. The functions of the company.-

      1. Directive.- Decides how the objectives of the company will be achieved through planning, organization, coordination and control

      2. Technical or production.- Performs activities for the manufacture of goods or the provision of services

      3. Research and development.- Improvement of methods and programming and launch of work plans

      4. Financial.- Get the necessary financial resources

      5. Human resources management.- Select, hire, train, motivate and promote staff

      6. Purchases.- Acquisitions

      7. Commercial.- Sell

      8. Administrative.- Control the documentation

    2. The business' organization.-

      1. Organization concept and its need: efficiency.-

        1. Technique efficiency.- It consists in achieve the objectives with the greatest possible economy of means

        2. Economic efficiency.- It consists in achieving the objectives at the lowest possible cost

        3. Definition of organization the company.- It’s the branch of knowledge that studies how to distribute enterprise resource efficiently to achieve the objectives of the company

      2. Background and evolution of the business organization. Brief history.-

        1. The study of business organization begins in the early years of the 20th century

        2. In the early days, studies were based on production, later the importance of psychological aspects was highlighted and later other approaches were adopted until reaching the current situation where a global vision of the company is taken into account

      3. Approaches.-

        1. Classic approach.-

          • Taylor.- He was the pioneer of the scientific organization of work

            • Principles that he formulated.-

              • Separation between the scheduling of the work and its execution.- The worker must be taught how to carry out his task

              • Measurement of the time necessary to carry out each task.- To know if the workers fulfill their task well. To calculate the work time it is necessary to divide it into elementary tasks

                • Representative time.- The average time invested in performing each of the tasks

                • Normal time.- The performance coefficient is applied to the representative time, which depends on the slowness or speed with which the operator has performed the task (for example, if the representative time is ten minutes and the operator has been slow, applies a negative 10% coefficient and the normal time would be 10 – 10 · 0,1 = 9)

                • Typical time.- Supplements for fatigue, personal needs and unavoidable delays are added to the normal time

              • Remuneration that encourages workers.- Rewarding the best and penalizing the worst

          • Behavior standards of the principle of minimal effort that he made.-

            • Reduce the displacement of people.- For which they must be close if their tasks are related

            • Reduce the transport of materials.

            • Properly dispose of materials and tools.- So that the time consumed in their use is minimal

            • Facilitate communication flows.- Through good means of communication (enough telephone lines, fax, etc.) to avoid useless travel)

          • He conceives the functional organization of the company.- He thinks that each worker has to depend on as many specialist heads as there are facets of his task

        2. Fayol.-

          • He analyzes the company as a whole and develops a theory for its general management, unlike Taylor who focused on the organization of work

          • He thinks that the functions of a company are: administrative, technical, commercial, financial, accounting and security

          • He considers that the most important is the administrative function

          • He formulated the principle of unity of command.- Each worker should only receive orders from one boss

        3. Psychological approach.-

          • Its main figure was Elton Mayo

          • He looked for methods to make work more humane, less monotonous, and thus reduce fatigue (background music, breaks at work, etc.)

        4. Sociological approach.- It’s concerned with conflicts of interest, in the formation of groups and in cooperative work within them

        5. Neoclassical approach.- They try to make compatible the functional specialty, proposed by Taylor, with the unity of command defended by Fayol, for this they create the line scheme (command) and staff (advice)

      4. Technical and human approach to the organization and business management.-

        1. Technical approach.-

          • Seeks efficiency in the use of productive factors

          • It’s based on the contributions of Taylor and his followers: Merrick, Lowry, Maynard, etc.

        2. Human approach.-

          • Focuses attention on the motivation of workers

          • It’s based on the contributions of Elton Mayo and his followers: McGregor, Herzberg, Maslow, etc.


    1. Definition.- A business plan is an official statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed to be achievable, and the plan to achieve these goals. It can also contain background information about the organization or team trying to achieve those goals.

    2. Business plan composition.- Although business plans have many different presentation formats, business plans typically cover five main content areas:

      1. Information over the background of the organization.- Number of employees, annual sales statistics, key product lines, location and facilities, current stage of development (startup), corporate structure, etc.

      2. A marketing plan.- A marketing plan is a written document that details the actions necessary to achieve one or more marketing objectives. It can be for a product or a service, a brand or a product line. arketing plans cover one to five years.

      3. An operational plan.- The plan outlines how one would maintain the cost of their clients effectively

      4. A financial plan.- In general use, a financial plan can be a budget, a plan to spend and save future income. This plan allocates future income to various types of expenses, such as rentals or utilities, and also reserves some income for short-term and long-term savings. A financial plan can also be an investment plan, which allocates savings to various assets or projects expected to produce future income, such as a new business or a product line, interests in an existing business or in a real estate.

      5. Criteria.- A discussion of the decision-making criteria that should be used to approve the plan

    3. The organizational fund.-

      1. Appearance.- In a written plan, the information may appear in a separate section, an appendix, or it may be omitted all together depending on the nature of the plan. If the plan is directed at people outside the company, a brief synopsis may appear in the executive summary. This will be supplemented with a more detailed discussion elsewhere in the plan.

      2. Current status.- Number of employees, annual sales statistics, key product lines, location and facilities, current development status (startup), corporate structure, and name of most investors, if any

      3. History.- Foundation day, main successes, learned strategically valuable experiences, etc.

      4. Management team.- Board members, owners, senior managers, managing partners, leading scientists and researchers, etc.

    4. The marketing plan.-

      1. Various objectives.- The marketing plan has several objectives: if the product is new with a non-existent market, one could identify all the substitute products. For each significant substitute product one must explain:

        1. Name, characteristics, why it substitutes, why does it propose a better product

        2. Cost variation and why the new product justifies the variation

        3. Adoption of expected dynamics

        4. Expected role once the market starts to develop

      2. Price.-

        1. Chosen price points

        2. Proposed pricing strategy

      3. Demand management.-In economics, demand management is the art or science of controlling demand to avoid recession. The term is also used to refer to the management of distribution, and access to essential goods and services for needs. An example is Social Security and social assistance services. Instead of increasing budgets for these things, governments should develop policies that allocate existing resources according to a hierarchy of needs.

      4. Distribution.-

        1. Distribution strategy

        2. List of main distributors

        3. Current state of the negotiations

      5. Promotion and brand development.-

        1. Promotion strategy

    5. The operational plan.-

      1. Manufacturing/deployment plan.-

        1. Supply chain requirements

        2. Production inputs

        3. Facility requirements - size, outlay, capacity, location -

        4. Equipment requirements

        5. Warehouse needs for raw materials, finished products

        6. Space requirements

      2. Information and communications technology plan.-

        1. Systems needed.-

          • Operations: Billing, knowledge bases, etc.

          • Websites: internal, public

        2. Security and privacy requirements

        3. Hardware requirements

        4. General software needed

        5. Custom software requirements

      3. Staff needs.-

        1. List of papers

        2. Management structure

        3. Head of count approval

        4. For each role

          • Job descriptions

          • Number of employees

          • Proposed compensation

          • Availability

      4. Training requirements.- Training requirements should look to focus on two topics - a benefit to motivate staff and develop the organization's ability to win business goals. Ideally all training requirements should be based on an assessment of the business plan objectives, the required competence and ability to achieve these objectives, and an understanding of the organization's current capabilities and skills. Simple matter of asking to evaluate the adequacy of the training - as a result of the training how much better the organization will be in achieving its objectives. Remember that training covers a wide range of activities from project work and on-the-job training to professional qualifications.

      5. Plan on intellectual property.-

        1. Inventory of intellectual property

        2. Development portfolio plan

      6. Acquisitions plan.-

        1. Buying companies.- Some business plans gain competitive advantage by buying companies above and below the value chain. Some gain competitive advantage by buying companies and consolidating them. Sometimes a business plan will seek to gain superior performance by adding superior management talent to an existing weak company.

        2. Included.- When acquisitions form a major part of the business strategy, the acquisition plan needs to be included in the business plan.

        3. Acquisition strategy

        4. Proposed acquisition objectives

        5. Effect on the market structure (if the consolidation plan is being proposed)

      7. Organizational learning plan.- The organizational learning plan discusses what lessons will be learned from the marketing, operational and financial plans and how those lessons will be consolidated to gain strategic advantage.

      8. Cost allocation model.- If variable costs play an important role in the business plan, it may be useful to include a cost allocation model. This is particularly true if one has a single business model that creates competitive advantage by transforming traditionally fixed costs into variable costs.

    6. The financial plan.-

      1. Financial statements.- In business, a financial plan can refer to three primary financial statements (balance sheet, profit and loss account and cash flow statement) created within a business plan. A financial forecast or financial plan can also refer to an annual projection of income and expenses for a company, division or department. A financial plan can also be an estimate of the cash needed for a decision on how to increase cash, borrow or issue additional shares in a company.

      2. Financial plan versus financing plan.- While a financial plan refers to estimating future income, expenses and assets, a financing plan or financial plan usually refers to the means by which the money will be acquired to cover future expenses, for example through earnings, borrowing or using saved money.

      3. Example of a small business balance sheet.-







Collection rights


Bills to pay


Tools and equipment




Social capital


Retained earnings










Gross income (including rental income)






Bank and credit card fees










Legal and professional services




Printing, postage and stationery










Net income


      1. Cash flow statement. Simple example.-

Cash flow statement

Operating cash flows


Investment cash flows


Financing cash flows


Net cash flows




    1. The market.- It’s any structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any type of goods, services and information. Market participants consist of all buyers and sellers of a commodity who influence its price. The market facilitates trade and enables the distribution and allocation of resources in a society. Marketplaces allow any tradable item to be evaluated and priced.

    2. Types of markets.-

      1. According to the type of goods.-

        1. Market of goods and services.-

        2. Factor market.- A factor market refers to a market where the factors of production are bought and sold.

          • Labor market

          • Capital market

      2. According to government intervention.-

        1. Free market.- A free market is a market without intervention and economic regulation by the government except to respect property "property rights" and contracts.

        2. Controlled market.- In a controlled market the government regulates how the means of production, goods and services are used, priced or distributed

      3. According to the number of buyers and sellers.-







Perfect competition (homogeneous, tomatoes)

Monopoly competition (different, restaurants)

Low prices

Oligopoly (oil)

High prices (if not regulated)

Monopoly (Seville-Aracena buses)

High prices (if not regulated)


Oligopsony (companies that sell to hypermarkets (assuming only hypermarkets existed)

High prices

Bilateral oligopoly (fencing equipment)

Limited monopoly (a company that produces a very expensive machine that only few hospitals can afford)


Monopsony (companies that produce hubcaps for the sole automobile company)

Low prices

Limited monopsony (companies that sell, to the sole aerospace company, components for their space shuttles)

Bilateral monopoly (a company that produces a new merchandise that only the single aerospace company needs)

      1. According to the knowledge of the conditions of purchase and sale.-

        1. Transparent market.- A market is transparent if a lot is known by many about: what products, services or fixed assets are available, at what price, where, etc.

        2. Market not transparent or opaque.-

      2. According to the product.-

        1. Perfect market.- Products are homogeneous

        2. Imperfect market.- Products are different

      3. According to the participants.-

        1. Open market.- An open market refers to a market that is accessible to all economic actors. In an open market, as defined, all economic actors have the same opportunity to enter that market.

        2. Protected market.- In a protected market, entry is conditional on certain financial and legal requirements or is subject to tariff barriers, taxes, or state subsidies that effectively prevent some economic actors from participating in them

      4. According to the degree of elaboration of the product.-

        1. Unprocessed product market

        2. Manufactured products market

      5. According to the buyer's links with the distribution channels.-

        1. Wholesale markets

        2. Retail markets

      6. According to the number of buyers and sellers and the product.-

        1. Perfect competition.- Many buyers and sellers and homogeneous products

        2. Imperfect competition.-

          • Monopoly competition - Many different sellers and products

          • Oligopoly.- Few sellers and few differences in products

          • Monopoly.- A seller and there is no substitute for the product

      7. According to the type and applications of the product.-

        1. B2C markets.- Consumer markets

        2. B2B markets.- Industrial markets

    1. The market study.-

      1. Objective of market research.- Market research is any organized effort to gather information about markets or customers

      2. Steps that a company could take to analyze the market.-

        1. Provide secondary and/or primary data.- If necessary

        2. Analyze the economic Micro and Macro data.- Supply and demand, price change, economic growth, sector/industry sales, interest rates, Consumer Price Index, social analysis, etc.

        3. Put into practice the concept of the marketing mix.- Which consists of: place, price, product, promotion, people, process, physical evidence and also political and social situation to analyze the global situation of the market

        4. Analyze market trends, growth, size, share and competition.- Drivers of customer loyalty and satisfaction, brand perception, satisfaction levels, current analysis of the competitor-channel relationship, etc.

        5. Determine the market segment, the target market, market projections and market positioning.-

        6. Formulation of market strategy and also investigate the possibility of association/collaboration.-

        7. Combine those analyzes with the business plan / business model analysis.- Business description, business process, business strategy, revenue model, business expansion, return on investment, financial analysis (History of the company, financial assumption, cost/profit analysis, projected profit and loss, cash flows, balance sheet and company ratios, etc.)

      3. Types of data for market research.-

        1. Primary data.- Primary data are collected by the researcher conducting the research.

        2. Secondary data.- Secondary data is data collected by someone other than the user. Common sources of secondary data for the social sciences include censuses, studies, organizational records, and data collected through qualitative methodologies or qualitative research.

      4. Ways to obtain primary data.-

        1. Surveys.-

          • Telephone

          • Mail

          • Online Surveys

          • Personal survey at home

          • Personal surveys intercepting in a shopping mall

        2. Observation.- Observation is an activity consisting of receiving knowledge of the outside world through the senses, or the recording of data using scientific instruments. The term can also refer to any data collected during this activity.

        3. Experimentation.- The results are observed in a laboratory environment.

      5. Consumer-panels.- They’re a technique to measure market research using the same sample of respondents on a continuous basis.

    1. Products and services.-

      1. Phases in the life of a product.-

        1. Introduction.- People begin to know the product and it doesn’t give benefits yet

        2. Growth.- The product is slowly having more market share

        3. Maturity.- The market share of the product stabilizes

        4. Decline.- The product is losing market share

      2. The product catalog.- It’s a detailed and valued list of all the products offered by a certain company; this list can be directed to wholesalers or retailers, but it can also be directed to final consumers for consultation online. If it’s aimed at professionals, it should include discounts, delivery times and any other information that may be of interest to them.

      3. The trademark.-

        1. Definition.- A brand is the identification of a specific product or service. A brand can take many forms, including a name, a sign, a symbol, a color combination, or a slogan. The word brand began simply as a way of calling the cattle of one person from those of another by means of a hot iron stamp. A legally protected brand is called a trademark. The word brand has continued to evolve to encompass identity - it affects the personality of a product, company or service. It’s one of the main forms of intellectual property, along with patents and utility models. Trademark rights must be maintained through the current and legitimate use of the trademark.

        2. Types of brand names.-

          • Acronym.- A name made from initials such as UPS or IBM

          • Descriptive.- Names that describe a benefit of the product or a function such as Airbus

          • Alliteration and rhythm - Names that are fun to say and hit the mind like Reese's Pieces or Dunkin 'Donuts

          • Evocative.- Names that evoke a relevant and vivid image such as Amazon or Crest

          • Neologisms.- Completely invented words like Wii or Kodak

          • Foreign words.- Adoption of a word from another language such as Volvo or Samsung

          • Founder's names.- Using real people's names like Hewlett-Packard or Disney

          • Geographical.- Many brands are named for regions and well-known places such as Cisco and Fuji Film

          • Personification.- Many brands take their names from myths like Nike or from the minds of advertising executives like Betty Crocker

        3. Approaches to branding techniques.-

          • Company name.- In this case a very strong brand name (or company name) is made the vehicle for a range of products (for example, Mercedes-Benz or Black & Decker) or even a range of subsidiary brands ( such as Cadbury Dairy Milk, Cadbury Flake or Cadbury Fingers in the United States).

          • Individual branding technique.- Each brand has a separate name (such as Seven-up or Nivea Sun (Beiersdorf)), which can even compete against other brands of the same company (for example, Persil, Omo, Surf and Lynx are all owned by Unilever).

          • Derivative brands.- In this case the supplier of a key component, used by a number of suppliers of the final product, may wish to secure its own position by promoting that component as a brand in its own right. The most frequently given example is Intel, which secures its position in the personal computer market with the slogan "Intel Inside".

          • Brand extension.- The existing strong brand name can be used as a vehicle for new or modified products; for example, many fashion and design companies extend brands in fragrances, shoes and accessories, home textiles, home decor, luggage, sunglasses, furniture, hotels, etc.

          • Multi-brands.- Alternatively, in a market that is fragmented among a number of brands, a supplier may deliberately choose to launch entirely new brands in apparent competition with their own existing strong brand (and often with identical product characteristics); simply to absorb some of the market share that goes to minority brands anyway. The rationale is that having 3 out of 12 brands in such a market will have a greater total share than having 1 out of 10 (even if much of the share of that new brand is taken from the existing one). In its most extreme manifestation, a pioneer supplier in a new market that believes it will be particularly attractive may immediately choose to launch a second brand in competition with its first, to get ahead of others entering the market.

          • Owne brand.- With the emergence of strong retailers, private labels, also called private brands or warehouse brands, also appeared as a main factor in the market. Where the retailer has a particularly strong identity (such as Marks & Spencer in the UK apparel sector) this 'own brand' must be able to compete against even the strongest leading brands, and can outperform those products that otherwise, they have strong marks


  1. THE BASES OF MARKETING.- Marketing designs product, assigns prices and choose the most appropriate distribution channels and communication skills to launch a product that truly meet the needs of customers. These techniques are also called Grundy's four pess: product, price, distribution or location, and advertising or promotion.

    1. Theproduct.- The components of the total product are:

      1. The basic product.- It’s the natural essence of the product

      2. Formal and tangible aspects.- It’s the added value that the product has thanks to the brand, quality, style, design, packaging, etc.

      3. Increased aspects.- Each additional service that the company gives to the client: after-sales service, financing, guarantee, etc.

    2. Distribution.-

      1. Definition.- Chain of intermediaries, each passing the product further down the chain to the next organization, before it finally reaches the consumer or end user .... This process is known as the "distribution chain" or the " channel". Each of the elements in these chains will have their own specific needs, which the producer must take into account, in addition to those of the all-important end user.

      2. Available channels.-

        1. Long channel (for consumer markets) .- The manufacturer, the agent, the wholesaler, the retailer and the final consumer

        2. Short channel (mainly for industrial markets) .- The manufacturer, the wholesaler or the industrial agent and the industrial consumer intervene in the industrial markets; in consumer markets involved the manufacturer, the retailer and the consumer

        3. Direct sale.- The manufacturer, the seller and the final consumer

      3. Hotels.- Distribution channels may not be restricted only to physical products. They can be just as important in moving a service from producer to consumer in certain sectors, since both channels, direct and indirect, can be used. Hotels, for example, can sell their services (typically rooms) directly or through travel agents, tour operators, airlines, tourism councils, centralized reservation systems, etc.

      4. Innovations in service distribution.- For example, there has been an increase in franchising and rental services - the latter offering anything from televisions to tools. There has also been some evidence of service integration, with services linked together, particularly in the travel and tourism sectors. For example, links now exist between airlines, hotels, and car rental services. There has also been a significant increase in retail outlets for the service sector. Retail outlets such as real estate agencies and construction company offices are driving traditional grocery stores out of major commercial areas

      5. Channel Marketing Types.-

        1. Intensive distribution.- Where most resellers sell the product (with ready-made products, for example, and particularly brand leaders in consumer goods markets) price competition may be evident.

        2. Selective distribution.- This is the normal pattern (in both consumer and industrial markets) where the appropriate reseller sells the product.

        3. Exclusive distribution.- Only specially selected resellers or authorized dealers (typically only one per geographic area) are allowed to sell the product.

      6. Types of intermediaries.-

        1. Sales representatives.- Or they link manufacturers and wholesalers or wholesalers and retailers and are paid a commission based on sales

        2. Wholesalers.- They buy from manufacturers and sell to retailers

        3. Retailers.- They buy from wholesalers and sell to the final consumer

      7. Role of intermediaries.- They reduce the number of contacts needed to sell the products (for example, without any intermediary, three manufacturers would need thirty contacts to sell their products to ten final consumers, but with an intermediary they would need only thirteen)

      8. Choice between direct distribution and indirect distribution.-

        1. Direct distribution costs = Fixed costs + Variable costs; DDC = FC + VC

        2. Indirect distribution costs = Variable costs; IDC = VC

        3. Example.- If the fixed direct distribution costs of a manufacturer are €150,000, the sellers commission is 12% and the intermediaries' margin is 26%, with a sales amount of €630,000. What type of distribution is the best?

          • DDC = 150,000 + (0.12 x 630,000) = €225,600

          • IDC = 0.26 x 630,000 = €163,800 (this is the best)

    3. Promotion.-

      1. Definition.- Promotion is the communication link between sellers and buyers with the purpose of influencing, informing or persuading the purchase decision of a potential buyer.

      2. Types of promotion.-

        1. Promotion on the line.- Promotion in the media (eg TV, radio, newspapers, internet, mobile phones, and historically illustrated songs) in which the advertiser pays an advertising agency to place the ad

        2. Promotion below the line.- All the rest of the promotion. Much of this attempts to be subtle enough for the consumer to be ignored that the promotion is taking place. Examples: sponsorship, product appearance in movies or series, sales promotions, merchandising, direct mail, personal selling, public relations, trade shows

      3. Advertising.-

        1. Definition.- Advertising is a non-personal form of communication that tries to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to buy or take some action on products, ideals or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to buy or consume that particular brand. These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and views on various media.

        2. Code.- Advertisers, advertising agencies and the media agree to a code of advertising standards that they intend to uphold. The general objective of such codes is to ensure that any advertisement is "legal, decent, honest and truthful."

        3. Goals.-

          • Inform about the new product

          • Persuade the consumer to buy the product

          • Remember that the product exists

        4. Advertising prohibited.-

          • Misleading advertising

          • Advertising that damages the dignity of the person

          • Subliminal advertising

          • Unfair advertising

      4. Sponsorship.- Sponsoring something is supporting an event, an activity, a person or an organization financially or through the provision of products or services.

      5. Product placement.- Or embedded marketing, is a form of advertising, where branded goods or services are placed in a context that usually lacks advertisements, such as movies, the plot of television shows, or new programs. Product placement is often undisclosed at the time the good or service is offered. Product placement became common in the 1980s.

      6. Sales promotion.- Marketing and non-media communication media are used for a predetermined, limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand or improve product availability. Examples include: a temporary price reduction, a loyalty reward program, coupons, etc.

      7. Merchandising.-

        1. Definition.- Merchandising are the methods, practices and operations used to promote and sustain certain categories of commercial activities. In the broadest sense, merchandising is any practice that contributes to the sale of products to a retailer.

        2. Examples.- The distribution of the products in the store, the place to put the products on the shelves, the light, the colors, the music, the temperature, etc.

      8. Direct mail.- Also known as advertising mail or junk mail, it’s the sending of advertising material to mailboxes

      9. Public Relations (PR) .- Public Relations is a field concerned with maintaining the public image for commercial companies and organizations. Common activities include speaking at conferences, working with the media, crisis communications, social engagement with the media, and communicating with employees.

      10. Trade shows.- A trade show or expo is an exhibition organized so that the company in a specific industry can display and demonstrate its latest products or services, study the activities of rivals, and examine recent market trends and opportunities.

      11. Personal sale.- It’s a sale through a direct deal with the buyer. One type of personal sale is telemarketing (selling using the telephone, fax or internet)

    4. Price. Price strategies.-

      1. Prices based on competition.- Establish the price based on the prices of similar competing products.

      2. Cost-based pricing.- Cost-based pricing is the simplest method of pricing. The company calculates the cost of producing the product and adds a percentage (profit) so that this price gives us the sale price. This method, while simple, has two shortcomings: it doesn’t take demand into account, and there is no way to determine whether potential customers will buy the product at the calculated price.

      3. Skim.- Selling a product at a high price, sacrificing high sales to earn a high profit, yet skimming the market. Usually used to reimburse the cost of the original research investment in the product - commonly used in electronic markets when there is a new range, such as DVD players, they are first shipped on the market at a high price

      4. Limit price.- A limit price is the price set by a monopolist to discourage economic entry into a market, and is illegal in many countries

      5. Hook product.- This pricing strategy is illegal under EU and US competition rules No market leader would want to sell low unless this is part of their overall strategy

      6. Market oriented price.- Set a price based on the analysis and compiled research of the target market

      7. Penetration price.- The price is deliberately set at a low level to win the interest of customers and establish market positioning

      8. Price discrimination.- Establish a different price for the same product in different segments for the market. For example, this can be for different ages or for different opening hours, such as movie tickets.

      9. Premium price.- Premium pricing is the practice of keeping the price of a product or service artificially high to encourage favorable perceptions among buyers based solely on price. The practice is intended to exploit the (not necessarily justifiable) tendency for shoppers to assume that expensive items enjoy an exceptional reputation or represent exceptional quality and distinction.

      10. Predatory price.- Aggressive pricing planned to drive competitors out of the market. It’s illegal on some sites

      11. Price based on the contribution margin.- The price based on the contribution margin maximizes the benefit derived from an individual product, based on the difference between the price of the product and the variable costs (the contribution margin of the product per unit), and on one's assumptions regarding the relationship between the price of the product and the number of units that can be sold at that price. The contribution of the product to the total profit of the company (eg operating income) is maximized when a price is chosen to maximize the following: Contribution margin per unit x Number of units sold.

      12. Psychological price.- Price designed to have a positive psychological impact. For example, selling a product for $3.95 or $3.99, more than $ 4.

      13. Dynamic pricing.- A flexible pricing mechanism made possible by advances in information technology, and used for the most part by internet-based companies. Responding to market fluctuations or large amounts of data collected from customers - varying from where they live to what they buy to how much they have spent on past purchases - dynamic pricing allows online companies to adjust the price of identical goods so that corresponds to the client's willingness to pay. The aviation industry is often cited as a dynamic pricing success story. In fact, he employs the technique so cleverly that most passengers on a given plane have paid different ticket prices for the same flight.

      14. Pricing leadership.- An observation made on the behavior of the oligopoly in which one company, usually the dominant competitor among several, leads the way in determining prices, followed by others soon

      15. Target price.- Pricing method through which the established price of a product is calculated to produce a particular rate of return on investment for a specific volume of production. The target price method is most often used for essential utilities, such as electric and gas companies, and companies with high capital investment, such as car manufacturers.

      16. Absorption price.- Pricing method in which all costs are covered. The product price includes the variable cost of each item plus a proportional amount of the fixed costs. A form of cost-based pricing

      17. Price based on marginal cost. - In business, the practice of setting the price of a product to equal the extra cost of producing an extra unit of production. Under this policy, a producer charges, for each unit of the product sold, only the addition to the total cost resulting from materials and direct labor. Businesses often set prices near marginal cost during periods of poor sales. If, for example, an item has a marginal cost of $1 and a normal selling price is $2, the firm selling the item might want to lower the price to $1.10 if demand has languished. The business would choose this proposition because the increased profit of 10 cents from the transaction is better than not selling anything.



    1. Distinction between natural or legal person.- A natural person is someone, like you and me, while a legal person is a company, association, community, etc., made up of natural persons

    2. Individual entrepreneur.- It’s that natural person who, having the necessary legal capacity, regularly exercises a business activity on his own account.

    3. Individual Limited Liability Companies (EIRL) .- They are legal persons, formed exclusively by a natural person, with their own assets and different from that of the owner, who carry out activities of a purely commercial nature (not second category activities). The EIRL are subject to the rules of the Commercial Code, whatever their purpose, being able to carry out all kinds of civil and commercial operations, except those reserved by law for Public Limited Companies (SA).

    4. Communities of goods.- It consists of a group of individual entrepreneurs who share some good

    5. Civil companies.- Are those that, without being public limited companies or limited liability companies, carry out an activity that can’t be industrial or commercial (eg a law firm)

    6. Partnership.- The partners, who can be capitalists or industrialists, have unlimited liability. They have no minimum capital.

    7. Simple limited partnership.- General partners have unlimited liability while limited partners have limited liability. They have no minimum capital.

    8. Limited partnership by shares.- They are a mix between the simple limited partnership and the public limited company.

    9. Limited liability company.- The partners have limited liability. The minimum capital is €3,000. The capital is divided into shares.

    10. Limited liability new company.- It’s a specialty of the limited liability company. The minimum capital is €3,000 and the maximum is €120,000.

    11. Public limited company.- The partners have limited liability. The minimum capital is €60,000.

    12. Public limited European company.- It is a specialty of the public limited company.

    13. Public limited listed company.- These are public limited companies that are listed on the Stock Market.

    14. Labor companies.- They can be labor limited liability companies or labor public limited companies. Most of the capital must be in the hands of working partners of the company with an indefinite contract and no partner can have more than a third of the capital stock.

    15. Cooperatives..- They aren’t for profit. In principle, the partners have limited liability. They can be for work, housing, transportation, consumption, credit, etc.

  2. The choice of the legal form.-

    1. Main selection criteria.-

      1. Liability.-

        1. Limited

        2. Unlimited)

      2. Number of partners.-

        1. One

        2. Two

        3. Three or more

      3. Capital.-

        1. No legal minimum

        2. Between €3,000 and €59,999

        3. Between €60,000 and €120,000

        4. More than €120,000

      4. Taxation system.- Income tax or corporation tax

    2. The different companies according to these three criteria.-

      1. Individual entrepreneur (self-employed) .- Has a partner, has no minimum capital and the liability is unlimited

      2. Limited liability entrepreneur.- Has a partner, has no minimum capital and liability is unlimited with exceptions

      3. Community of goods.- It has a minimum of two partners, it has no minimum capital and the responsibility is unlimited

      4. Civil society.- It has a minimum of two partners, it has no minimum capital and the liability is unlimited

      5. Partnership.- It has a minimum of two partners, it has no minimum capital and the liability is unlimited

      6. Simple limited partnership.- It has a minimum of two partners, it has no minimum capital and the liability is unlimited for general partners and limited for limited partners.

      7. Limited liability company.- It has a minimum of one partner, the minimum capital is €3,000 and the liability is limited

      8. Limited liability company of successive formation.- It has a minimum of one partner, it has no minimum capital and the responsibility is limited

      9. Limited liability new company.- It has a minimum of one partner and a maximum of five, has a minimum capital of €3,000 and a maximum capital of €120,000 and liability is limited

      10. Public limited company.- It has a minimum of one partner, has a minimum capital of €60,000 and liability is limited

      11. Limited partnership by shares.- It has a minimum of two partners, the minimum capital is €60,000 and the liability is limited for limited partners and unlimited for groups.

      12. Limited labor liability company.- It has a minimum of two partners, the minimum capital is €3,000 and the liability is limited

      13. Labor Public limited company.- It has a minimum of two partners, the minimum capital is €60,000 and the liability is limited

      14. Cooperative.- First degree cooperatives have a minimum of three members and second or later degree cooperatives have a minimum of two cooperatives of the immediately lower degree, the minimum capital is the one established in the statutes and liability is limited

  3. Main start-up procedures of the company.-

    1. Spanish Agency for Data Protection.-

      1. Registration of files of a personal nature.- Obtaining of those responsible for managing personal data to guarantee the right to the protection of said data

    2. State Tax Administration Agency.-

      1. Registration in the Census of entrepreneurs, professionals and retainers.- Census declaration of beginning, modification or cessation of activity that individual entrepreneurs, professionals and companies must present for tax purposes

      2. Tax on Economic Activities.- It’s a tribute derived from the exercise of business, professional or artistic activities

    3. Certification authorities.-

      1. Obtaining an electronic certificate.- The electronic certificate makes it possible to sign electronic documents and unequivocally identify the owner of the signature

    4. Town councils.-

      1. Activity license.- Installation and works licenses, activity licenses and operating licenses

    5. Ministry of Labor of the Autonomous Community.-

      1. Communication of the opening of the work center.- Once the company is constituted or the employer decides to initiate its activity, the communication of the opening of the work center must be communicated, for the purpose of controlling the Occupational Health and Safety conditions.

    6. Provincial Labor Inspection.-

      1. Obtaining and legalizing the visitor's book.- A mandatory book for companies that records the procedures carried out by labor inspectors after the results of the visits made to the company.

      2. Obtaining the work calendar.- Companies must display the work calendar in each work center, which must be in a visible place

    7. Spanish office of the patents and brand.-

      1. Registration of distinctive signs.- Distinctive signs are used in industry and commerce to distinguish the products or services of a company from other competitors in the market.

    8. Other official bodies and/or registries.-

    1. Registration in other official bodies and/or registries.- Depending on the activity carried out, the start of the activity must be communicated with a mandatory nature in those administrations, authorities and/or registries

  1. Provincial Commercial Registry.-

    1. Legalization of the minute book, the partner record book, the registered share book and the record book of contracts between the sole partner and the company.- Current legislation obliges commercial companies to keep some registry books (of minutes, partners or shares) and to make their presentation annually in the Provincial Mercantile Registry

    2. Legalization of the Daily Book and the Inventory and Annual Accounts Book.- All businessmen who keep their accounts according to the provisions of the Commercial Code must prepare the following accounting documents: a Daily Book and an Inventory Book and Annual Accounts

  2. Public Service of State Employment.-

    1. Registration of employment contracts.- This procedure consists of carrying out the legalization or can of the employment contracts of employed workers

  3. General Treasury of Social Security.-

    1. Registration of partners and administrators in the Social Security regimes.- Registration in the corresponding Social Security regime in each case will be conditioned to the type of company and / or participation in the capital stock.

    2. Registration of workers in the Social Security Scheme.- Any employer who hires workers must notify the registration in the corresponding Social Security Scheme.

    3. Affiliation of workers.- Administrative act by which the General Treasury of Social Security recognizes natural persons their inclusion for the first time in the Social Security System

    4. Registration in the special regime for self-employed workers (RETA) .- Regime that regulates the contribution to Social Security of self-employed workers (individual employer), community members and the partners and administrators of some companies

    5. Company registrations.- Registration is the administrative act by which the General Treasury of Social Security assigns the employer a number for identification and control of their obligations (contribution account code)

  4. Specific procedures.-

    1. General Directorate of Tourism of the Autonomous Communities.-

      1. Opening authorization.- For bars, cafes, restaurants and hotel establishments.-

      2. Application for the license title.- For travel agencies

    2. General Directorate of the Treasury and Financial Policy (Ministry of Economy and Finance) .-

      1. Incorporation authorization.- For fixed capital and variable capital securities investment companies

    3. General Directorate of Industry, Energy and Mines of the autonomous communities.-

      1. Industrial Registry.- For industrial activities, repair shops, warehouses of toxic or dangerous substances, manufacturing companies of any product

      2. Business qualification documentation.- For construction activities, electrical installations and/or repairs, wood and cork sector and engineering and consultation activities

      3. Card or certificate.- For individuals who are dedicated to electrical, gas, air conditioning and pressure equipment installations

    4. Spanish Patent and Trademark Office (Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce) .-

      1. Industrial Property Registry.- Trademarks, patents, trade names, distinctive signs, industrial models

    5. Secretary of State for Security (Ministry of the Interior) .-

      1. Registration.- For security companies

    6. Regional Health Service.-

      1. Registration.- For industries and food establishments (Not retailers, supermarkets or hypermarkets)

    7. National Gaming Commission (Ministry of the Interior) .-

      1. Registration.- For gaming equipment companies


    1. Aid for business creation.- See in the "Financing" section of ""

    2. Entrepreneurship support centers.- Both the state, regional and local administrations have centers that help future entrepreneurs by providing them with training and contacts so that their ideas can be successful.